Novel drugs for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia

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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the second most common form of leukemia and the most frequent cause of leukemia-related deaths in the United States. The incidence of AML increases with advancing age and the prognosis for patients with AML worsens substantially with increasing age. Many older patients are ineligible for intensive treatment and require other therapeutic approaches to optimize clinical outcome. To address this treatment gap, novel agents with varying mechanisms of action targeting different cellular processes are currently in development. Hypomethylating agents (azacitidine, decitabine, SGI-110), histone deacetylase inhibitors (vorinostat, pracinostat, panobinostat), FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 inhibitors (quizartinib, sorafenib, midostaurin, crenolanib), cytotoxic agents (clofarabine, sapacitabine, vosaroxin), cell cycle inhibitors (barasertib, volasertib, rigosertib) and monoclonal antibodies (gentuzumab ozogamicin, lintuzumab-Ac225) represent some of these promising new treatments. This review provides an overview of novel agents that have either completed or are currently in ongoing phase III trials in patients with previously untreated AML for whom intensive treatment is not an option. Other potential drugs in earlier stages of development will also be addressed in this review.

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