Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent a promising therapeutic approach in many diseases in view of their potent immunomodulatory properties, which are only partially understood. Here, we show that the endothelium is a specific and key target of MSC during immunity and inflammation. In mice, MSC inhibit activation and proliferation of endothelial cells in remote inflamed lymph nodes (LNs), affect elongation and arborization of high endothelial venules (HEVs) and inhibit T-cell homing. The proteomic analysis of the MSC secretome identified the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) as a potential effector molecule responsible for the anti-angiogenic properties of MSC. Both in vitro and in vivo, TIMP-1 activity is responsible for the antiangiogenic effects of MSC, and increasing TIMP-1 concentrations delivered by an Adeno Associated Virus (AAV) vector recapitulates the effects of MSC transplantation on draining LNs. Thus, this study discovers a new and highly efficient general mechanism through which MSC tune down immunity and inflammation, identifies TIMP-1 as a novel biomarker of MSC-based therapy and opens the gate to new therapeutic approaches of inflammatory diseases.