Locating this paper in the wider context of evaluations of interprofessional education (IPE), this review explores the knowledge base of the pedagogic processes for interprofessional education. The article concentrates on evidence for professionals in health, social care and education, the challenges involved in IPE and the challenges involved in evaluating IPE. Although IPE is widely discussed, detailed descriptions of the underlying pedagogy are scarce. The paper aims to provide a more detailed account of the approaches to learning and teaching in IPE. A literature review was undertaken to collate information on approaches to IPE, concentrating primarily on identifying descriptions of pedagogical features for pre- and post-registration training and continuing professional development. The review identifies a number of pedagogical models and educational processes underpinning IPE. Although the findings indicate that social-constructivist approaches, small group working and problem-based learning are often referred to, evidence of pedagogical models used in IPE and ways of developing evidence of their effectiveness and usefulness are still limited. Based on the discussion of some challenges that face IPE in general and the evaluation of IPE in particular, the authors propose the need for a theoretical framework that conceptualizes learning by taking into account the wider context of learning and the pedagogy that is employed during IPE. Reference is made to a framework which would respond to evidence in the literature that evaluations of IPE need to take into consideration different, complimentary sources of data that go beyond traditional, often positivist evaluations.