Cardiac voltage gated calcium channels and their regulation by β-adrenergic signaling

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Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are the predominant source of calcium influx in the heart leading to calcium-induced calcium release and ultimately excitation-contraction coupling. In the heart, VGCCs are modulated by the β-adrenergic signaling. Signaling through β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) and modulation of VGCCs by β-adrenergic signaling in the heart are critical signaling and changes to these have been significantly implicated in heart failure. However, data related to calcium channel dysfunction in heart failure is divergent and contradictory ranging from reduced function to no change in the calcium current. Many recent studies have highlighted the importance of functional and spatial microdomains in the heart and that may be the key to answer several puzzling questions. In this review, we have briefly discussed the types of VGCCs found in heart tissues, their structure, and significance in the normal and pathological condition of the heart. More importantly, we have reviewed the modulation of VGCCs by βARs in normal and pathological conditions incorporating functional and structural aspects. There are different types of βARs, each having their own significance in the functioning of the heart. Finally, we emphasize the importance of location of proteins as it relates to their function and modulation by co-signaling molecules. Its implication on the studies of heart failure is speculated.Graphical abstract:Highlights:VGCCs are implicated in heart failure being the major source of calcium influx in cardiomyocytes.So far, data regarding the role of VGCCs in heart failure is divergent.VGCCs are modulated by β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation during fight and flight response.Heart failure is also a structural disease where T-tubule microdomains are lost leading to de-coupling of VGCCs and βARs.In heart failure, both βARs and VGCCs are dislocated from their locations, partly explaining the pathology of the disease.

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