We predict some essential interactions between the V2 vasopressin renal receptor (V2R) and its agonists [Arg8]vasopressin (AVP) and [D-Arg8]vasopressin (DAVP), and the non-peptide antagonist OPC-31260. V2R controls antidiuresis and belongs to the superfamily of heptahelical transmembrane (7TM) G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The receptor was built, the ligands were docked and the structures relaxed using advanced molecular modeling techniques. Docked agonists and antagonists appear to prefer similar V2R compartments. A number of receptor amino acid residues are indicated, mainly in the TM3–TM7 helices, as potentially important in ligand binding. Many of these residues are invariant for either the GPCR superfamily or the subfamily of related (vasopressin V2R, V1aR and V1bR and oxytocin OR) receptors. Moreover, some of the equivalent residues in V1aR have already been found critical for ligand affinity [Mouillac et al., J. Biol. Chem., 270 (1995) 25771].