Gamma-decanolactone is a monoterpene compound, which is shown to be active in some animal models. The psychopharmacological evaluation of this compound in mice has revealed that it has a dose-dependent effect on the central nervous system, including hypnotic, anticonvulsant and hypothermic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gamma-decanolactone at 0.1 and 0.3 g/kg on behavior parameters related to plus-maze, open field and forced swim tests. In addition, we investigated its genotoxic activity. Gamma-decanolactone at the dose of 0.3 g/kg, but not 0.1 g/kg, decreased the number of crossings and rearings and there were no significant differences among groups regarding the latency to start locomotion in open field. A single i.p. administration of gamma-decanolactone, at the higher, but not at lower dose used, was able to increase the exploratory activity in the test session (24 h after training), as assessed by the number of rearings performed in open field, and induced DNA damage on brain tissue as measured in comet assay, suggesting an impairment of nonassociative, nonaversive learning and a genotoxic effect on CNS. Gamma-decanolactone did not change the behavior of animals in plus-maze and forced swim tests, suggesting this compound shows no anxiolytic or antidepressant activity.