Amelioration of cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions with silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid in the cerebral global ischemic rat model

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Abstract

Aims

The neuroprotective activities of silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (PCA) on cerebral global ischemic/reperfusion were evaluated in a rat model.

Main methods

A midline ventral incision was made in the throat region. The right and left common carotid arteries were located and a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was performed for 30 min using atraumatic clamps followed by a 24 h period of reperfusion. Neurological/behavioral functions (cognitive and motor), endogenous defense systems (lipid peroxidation, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase), reduced water content and infarct size and histopathological alterations were then studied.

Key findings

Silymarin and PCA treatments significantly improved cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions, histopathological alterations, and, reduced both water content and infarct size compared to the vehicle-treated ischemic control group. Piracetam treatment improved neurological and histopathological alterations, reduced water content and infarct size, but failed to restore/prevent the impaired endogenous defense functions significantly.

Significance

Silymarin showed better neuroprotection than piracetam and PCA in experimentally induced global ischemic/reperfusion and was able to facilitate mnemonic performance.

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