To test the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling system in the in vivo setting of resuscitation and survival after cardiac arrest.Main methods:
A mouse model of potassium-induced cardiac arrest and resuscitation was used to test the importance of S1P homeostasis in resuscitation and survival. C57BL/6 and sphingosine kinase-1 knockout (SphK1-KO) female mice were arrested for 8 min then subjected to 5 minute CPR with epinephrine bolus given at 90 s after the beginning of CPR. Animal survival was monitored for 4 h post-resuscitation. Upregulation of tissue and circulatory S1P levels were achieved via inhibition of S1P lyase by 2-acetyl-5-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI). Plasma and heart tissue S1P and ceramide levels were quantified by targeted ESI-LC/MS/MS.Key findings:
Lack of SphK1 and low tissue/circulatory S1P levels in SphK1-KO mice led to poor animal resuscitation after cardiac arrest and to impaired survival post-resuscitation. Inhibition of S1P lyase in SphK1-KO mice drastically improved animal resuscitation and survival. Improved resuscitation and survival of THI-treated SphK1-KO mice were better correlated with cardiac dihydro-S1P (DHS1P) than S1P levels. The lack of SphK1 and the inhibition of S1P lyase by THI were accompanied by modulation in cardiac S1PR1 and S1PR2 expression and by selective changes in plasma N-palmitoyl- and N-behenoyl-ceramide levels.Significance:
Our data provide evidence for the crucial role for SphK1 and S1P signaling system in resuscitation and survival after cardiac arrest, which may form the basis for development of novel therapeutic strategy to support resuscitation and long-term survival of cardiac arrest patients.