Effects of short term and long term Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on depressive disorder in mice: Involvement of nitric oxide pathway

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Abstract

Aims:

Previous reports on the possible effects of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF MF) on mood have been paradoxical in different settings while no study has yet been conducted on animal behavior. In addition, it was shown that ELF MF exposure makes an increase in brain nitric oxide level. Therefore, in the current study, we aimed to assess the possible effect(s) of ELF MF exposure on mice Forced Swimming Test (FST) and evaluate the probable role of the increased level of nitric oxide in the observed behavior.

Main methods:

Male adult mice NMRI were recruited to investigate the short term and long term ELF MF exposure (0.5 mT and 50 Hz, single 2 h and 2 weeks 2 h a day). Locomotor behavior was assessed by using open-field test (OFT) followed by FST to evaluate the immobility time. Accordingly, NΩ-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester 30 mg/kg was used to exert anti-depressant like effect.

Key findings:

According to the results, short term exposure did not alter the immobility time, whereas long term exposure significantly reduces immobility time (p < 0.01). However, it was revealed that the locomotion did not differ among all experimental groups. Short term exposure reversed the anti-depressant like effect resulting from 30 mg/kg of NΩ-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (p < 0.01).

Significance:

It has been concluded that long term exposure could alter the depressive disorder in mice, whereas short term exposure has no significant effect. Also, reversing the anti-depressant activity of L-NAME indicates a probable increase in the brain nitric oxide.

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