Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), an important mitochondrial enzyme governing ethanol metabolism, displays polymorphism in human. Recent evidence suggested that genetic polymorphism in ALDH2 gene may be significantly correlated with the susceptibility to cancer, such as colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, and liver cancer. To investigate the correlation between ALDH2 mutant gene and the risk of a certain cancer, many studies have been done by testing the ALDH2 genotype in patients with cancers. Here, we summarized 84 ALDH2 gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in human cancer, which focus primarily on the rs671 SNP site. As a novel biological marker, ALDH2 displays a very attractive prospect in the screening, diagnosis and evaluation of the prognosis of many diseases. Moreover, much attention has been attracted to the studies of the biological functions and potential value of ALDH2 in the human cancer treatment. This review will provide an overview about the clinical prospects of ALDH2 based on the available information.Graphical abstract
ALDH2 gene polymorphism in different types of cancers and its clinical significance.