Vascular remodeling results from aberrations in the balance between cell proliferation and death, which is seen in the obstructive vasculature of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Endothelin (ET)-1 has a potent proliferative activity on vascular smooth muscle cells, and ET receptor inhibitors are used to treat PAH; however, it remains unclear whether ET receptor inhibition contributes to the apoptosis of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), another cause of pulmonary vascular remodeling.Main methods:
Cultured human PASMCs were treated with the ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 (100 μM), or the ETB antagonist A-192621 (1 – 100 μM) or BQ-788 (1 – 100 μM) for 48 h. The cells were then incubated for another 24 h with or without doxorubicin (DOX, 1 μM), an anthracyclin antitumor antibiotic that promotes p53-mediated apoptosis. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assays, caspase-3/7 activity assays, and Western blots for cleaved caspase-3 expression.Key findings:
The viability of PASMCs was significantly decreased by A-192621 and BQ-788, in a dose-dependent manner. A-192621 and BQ-788 significantly increased the caspase-3/7 activity and cleaved caspase-3 expression in PASMCs. The PASMCs' susceptibility to DOX-induced apoptosis was significantly higher in the presence of A-192621 and BQ-788 than with vehicle. However, BQ-123 did not affect these parameters.Significance:
Blockade of the ETB receptor increases the extent of apoptosis and susceptibility to DOX-induced apoptosis in PASMCs. Apoptosis caused by ETB receptor blockade in PASMCs may be one of the mechanisms by which vascular remodeling is reduced in ET receptor inhibitor-based PAH treatments.