The role of hippocampal insulin signaling on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in an aged rat model of abdominal surgery

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Abstract

Aims:

This study aimed to investigate the role of central insulin signaling, including glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and its therapeutic potential for the prevention of postoperative neurocognitive deficits.

Main methods:

In non-insulin experiment, aged rats were divided into a sham group and abdominal surgery group. In insulin experiment, sham and surgically treated rats were distributed into two groups: an intranasal denatured insulin-treated group and intranasal insulin-treated group. Insulin administration started the day of surgery and continued for 3 days. Fourteen-days after surgery, cognitive function was assessed using a novel object recognition test, followed by measurement of hippocampal levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, GSK-3β, and phosphorylated GSK-3β (pGSK-3βser9). Under identical conditions, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine release from isolated hippocampal microglia was also tested.

Key findings:

In non-insulin experiment, compared with non-surgical animals, the rats that underwent abdominal surgery showed memory deficits and increased hippocampal cytokine levels. The hippocampal ratio of pGSK-3βser9/GSK-3β decreased after surgery, a ratio that was positively correlated with novel object recognition performance in the testing phase. Insulin experiment revealed that perioperative intranasal insulin administration could restore the surgery-induced hippocampal neuroinflammation and hyperactivation of GSK-3β, and prevent impairment in novel object recognition. Furthermore, ex vivo experiments indicated that intranasal insulin administration, as well as pretreatment with SB216763, a GSK-3β inhibitor, resulted in reduction of the surgery-related microglial hyper-reactivity to LPS.

Significance:

Our findings in aged rats suggest that surgical procedures could impair central insulin signaling including GSK-3β, which makes the individual more susceptible to hippocampal neuroinflammation and related cognitive disorders.

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