To investigate how Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells (P-MSCs) would adapt themselves and survive under hypoxic conditions which are prevalent in most injury sites.Main methods:
P-MSCs were isolated from term placenta and characterised under normoxia and hypoxia (2–2.5% O2). Cells were examined for morphology and surface marker variations by flow cytometry analysis. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion was assayed by Insulin ELISA Kit. Gene expression levels were estimated using Real Time PCR for hypoxia inducible factor1 alpha, Insulin (INS), Glucose transporters (GLUT-1, GLUT-2 and GLUT-3), Adhesion Proteins- Integrins, Fibronectin1 (FN1), E-Cadherin (CDH1), and N-Cadherin (CDH2) and angiogenesis marker VEGFA. Immunofluorescence assay was done to confirm the presence of C-Peptide, GLUT 2, E-Cadherin and ITGB3. Adhesion was confirmed assessed on fibronectin binding.Key findings:
We show that insulin secretion is not hampered under hypoxia. We found an upregulation of glucose transporters under hypoxia indicating enhanced glucose uptake needed to cater to metabolic demands of proliferating cells. Up regulation of adhesion molecules was seen under hypoxia indicative of a favoured environment for retention of cells at the injury site. We also found increased level of angiogenesis of P-MSCs under hypoxia.Significance:
Our present study thus demonstrates for the first time that P-MSCs modulate themselves under hypoxic conditions by secreting insulin, up regulating glucose transporters and adhesion molecules and eventually exhibiting an increased angiogenic potential. We thus infer that priming P-MSCs under hypoxia, could make them more suitable for wound healing applications.