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Sestrins, a class of stress-related proteins, is involved in the control of aging-induced organic dysfunctions and metabolic control. However, the factors that modulate the levels of Sestrins are poorly studied. Here, we evaluated the effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on Sestrin 1 (Sesn1) and Sesn2 protein contents in the skeletal muscle of mice.Male C57BL/6 J mice performed an acute or chronic (4 weeks) exercise protocols on a treadmill running at 60% of the peak workload. Then, the quadriceps muscle was removed and analyzed by Western blot. Bioinformatics analysis was also performed to evaluate Sesn1 and Sesn2 mRNA in the skeletal muscle and phenotypic pattern in a large panel of isogenic strains of BXD mice.While acute aerobic exercise increased Sesn1 accumulation and induced a discrete augment of Sesn2 protein content and AMPK threonine phosphorylation, chronic exercise reduced the basal levels of Sesn1 and Sesn2 as well as of AMPK threonine phosphorylation in the quadriceps muscles of C57BL/6 J mice. In accordance with these experimental approaches, transcriptomic analysis revealed that Sesn1 and Sesn2 mRNA levels in the skeletal muscle were inversely correlated with the locomotor activity in several strains of BXD mice.Our data suggest that physical exercise has role on Sestrin1 and Sestrin2 expression on skeletal muscle, providing new insights into the mechanism by which physical exercise affects stress-related proteins in skeletal muscles.