Raspberry ketone protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats

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Aim:The cardioprotective role of raspberry ketone (RK) against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats was assessed.Materials and methods:Rats were randomly divided into Group I - Vehicle control; Group II - Toxic control ISO (85 mg/kg, s.c.); Group III, IV and V - RK (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively) with ISO; Group VI- RK (200 mg/kg) alone; Group VII - Propranolol (10 mg/kg) with ISO; and Group VIII - Propranolol (10 mg/kg) alone. After twenty-four hours of the last dose, animals were sacrificed and creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density-lipoprotein, low-density-lipoprotein, very-low-density-lipoprotein, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, Na+, K+-ATPase, nitric oxide, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis (tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase) were performed.Key findings:Treatment with ISO significantly deviated the biochemical parameters from the normal levels, which were considerably restored by RK at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses. 50 mg/kg dose, however, did not demonstrate any significant cardioprotective action. The histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis further substantiated these findings.Significance:Our study showed a dose-dependent reduction in oxidative stress, inflammation and dyslipidemia by RK in ISO-intoxicated rats, which signifies that RK from the European red raspberry plant might be a valuable entity for the management of MI.Graphical abstract:Highlights:The cardioprotective action of raspberry ketone in isoproterenol induced cardiotoxicity was assessed.The cardiac damage due to isoproterenol was significantly prevented by prophylactic treatment of raspberry ketone.The antioxidative, antihyperlipidemic, and anti-inflammatory properties of raspberry ketone plays role in cardioprotection.The protective effects of raspberry ketone were comparable to that of standard β-blocking drug, propranolol.The protective effects of raspberry ketone might be attributed to its PPAR-α agonistic activity.

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