The possible neuroprotective effect of ellagic acid on sodium arsenate-induced neurotoxicity in rats

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Abstract

Objective

Arsenic is a well-known environmental contaminant, causing toxicity in different organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of ellagic acid (EA) on arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

Design

Animals were divided into five groups. The first group received normal saline (2 mL/kg) for 21 days as control group. Group 2 was orally treated with sodium arsenite (SA, 10 mg/kg) for 21 days. Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with SA (10 mg/kg) for 7 days prior to EA (10 and 30 mg/kg respectively) treatment and continued up to 21 days simultaneously with SA administration. Group 5 was orally treated with EA (30 mg/kg) for 14 days. Passive avoidance test and rotarod test were done to evaluate the behavioral changes following SA and/or EA treatment. Different biochemical, histological and molecular biomarkers were assessed in the brain tissue.

Results

Our data showed that SA significantly elevated brain tissue arsenic levels and malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, protein carbonylation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interlukein-1β production. A decrease in the total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity occurred in the brain of rats exposed to SA. SA-treated rats showed a significant impairment in long-term-memory, motor coordination and equilibrium. These results were supported by histopathological observations of the brain. Results revealed that administration of EA (30 mg/kg) reversed all neural markers alternation and ameliorated behavioral and histopathological changes induced by SA.

Conclusion

EA can effectively protect brain tissue against SA-induced neurotoxicity via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

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