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This study evaluated the effect of chronic sleep restriction (CSR) with or without curcumin (CUR) treatment on dendritic lengths and spines of the CA1 hippocampus using the virtual space-ball method.Male rats were randomly submitted to nine groups, including distilled water, CUR (100 mg/kg/day), olive oil, CSR plus distilled water, CSR plus CUR, CSR plus olive oil, grid-floor plus distilled water, grid-floor plus CUR, and grid-floor plus olive oil groups. Sleep deficiency was imposed using the multi-platform box containing water for 18 h/day. In 21 days, animal's brains were prepared for stereological studies.The mean dendrite length in CA1 neurons was reduced by 39% (p < 0.05) while the density of stubby, thin, and mushroom spines reduced by 38%, 33% and 32%, respectively (p < 0.01), in the CSR + distilled water group compared to the distilled water group. Yet, CUR treatment in CSR-rats was found to protect the declined dendritic length as well as loss of stubby and mushroom but not thin spines.The estimated dendritic length using the virtual space-ball method revealed that chronic sleep restriction for 18 h/day over 21 days could induce shortening and shedding of the CA1 dendritic trees which could notably be protected by CUR.