N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine treatment efficiently prevented pre-diabetes and inflamed-dysmetabolic liver development in hypothalamic obese rats

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Abstract

Aim:

Hypothalamic obese rats are characterized by pre-diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperadiposity, inflammation and, liver dysmetabolism with oxidative stress (OS), among others. We studied endocrine-metabolic dysfunctions and, liver OS and inflammation in both monosodium l-glutamate (MSG)-neonatally damaged and control litter-mate (C) adult male rats, either chronically treated with N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine since weaned (C-NAC and MSG-NAC) or not.

Methodology:

We evaluated circulating TBARS, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid (UA) and, aspartate and alanine amino-transferase; insulin sensitivity markers (HOMA indexes, Liver Index of Insulin Sensitivity –LISI-) were calculated and liver steps of the insulin-signaling pathway were investigated. Additionally, we monitored liver OS (protein carbonyl groups, GSH and iNOS level) and inflammation-related markers (COX-2 and TNFα protein content; gene expression level of Il1b, Tnfα and Pai-1); and carbohydrate and lipid metabolic functions (glucokinase/fructokinase activities and, mRNA levels of Srebp1c, Fas and Gpat).

Key Findings:

Chronic NAC treatment in MSG rats efficiently decreased the high circulating levels of triglycerides, UA, transaminases and TBARS, as well as peripheral (high insulinemia and HOMA indexes) and liver (LISI and the P-AKT:AKT and P-eNOS:eNOS protein ratio values) insulin-resistance. Moreover, NAC therapy in MSG rats prevented liver dysmetabolism by decreasing local levels of OS and inflammation markers. Finally, NAC-treated MSG rats retained normal liver glucokinase and fructokinase activities, and Srebp1c, Fas and Gpat (lipogenic genes) expression levels.

Significance:

Our study strongly supports that chronic oral antioxidant therapy (NAC administration) prevented the development of pre-diabetes, dyslipidemia, and inflamed-dysmetabolic liver in hypothalamic obese rats by efficiently decreasing high endogenous OS.

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