The cryptochrome inhibitor KS15 enhances E-box-mediated transcription by disrupting the feedback action of a circadian transcription-repressor complex

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



We have previously identified a chemical scaffold possessing 2-ethoxypropanoic acid (designated as KS15) that directly binds to the C-terminal region of cryptochromes (CRYs: CRY1 and CRY2) and enhances E-box-mediated transcription. However, it is still unclear how KS15 impairs the feedback actions of the CRYs and which chemical moieties are functionally important for its actions.

Main methods:

The E-box-mediated transcriptional activities were mainly used to examine the effects of KS15 and its derivatives. Co-immunoprecipitation assays accompanied by immunoblotting were employed to monitor protein-protein associations. We also examined the effects of KS15 and selected derivatives on circadian molecular rhythms in cultured cells.

Key findings:

The present study shows that KS15 inhibits the interaction between CRYs and Brain-Muscle-Arnt-Like protein 1 (BMAL1), thereby impairing the feedback actions of CRYs on E-box-dependent transcription by CLOCK:BMAL1 heterodimer, an indispensable transcriptional regulator of the mammalian circadian clock. Subsequent structure-activity relationship analyses using a well-designed panel of derivatives identified the structural requirements for the effects of KS15 on CRY-evoked regulation of E-box-mediated transcription. We found that KS15 and several derivatives significantly reduce the amplitude and delayed the phase of molecular circadian rhythms in fibroblast cultures.


Taken together, our results provide valuable information on the molecular mode-of-action as well as the chemical components of the CRYs inhibitor that pharmacologically impact on the transcriptional activity of the CLOCK:BMAL1 heterodimer.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles