Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in all adult mesenchymal tissues. They play a role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and repair by allowing renewal of the cellular stock. MSCs can be isolated from both human and animal sources. These cells are important in regenerative medicine and cell therapy, thus adipose tissue is a rich and promising source of these cells. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are often effective and safe, and have been used in preclinical and clinical studies for both autologous and allogeneic transplantation. The potential use of stem cell-based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs provides an important alternative therapeutic solution for the treatment of many diseases. However, it is necessary to have control of the cell manipulation process prior to their use. Exposure of humans to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with increased weight and obesity, but the mechanisms by which BPA increases adipose tissue in humans remains to be determined. BPA has been classified as a potent endocrine-disrupting chemical that interferes with adipogenesis. Currently, few studies have reported the effect of BPA on the integrity and capacity for differentiation of MSCs. Thus, this review aims to present, for the first time, a current survey and a discussion of the effects of BPA action on MSCs.