Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have progressive renal fibrosis, inflammation, and reduced muscle mass and strength. Resistance training (RT) has been suggested to mitigate the loss of muscle mass, of strength and the inflammation in CKD, but the mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of RT on renal fibrosis, renal cytokine expression, creatine kinase levels, and muscle mass and strength in CKD rats. A CKD model was obtained by 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). Fifteen 8-week-old male rats were divided into 3 groups: Sham (control), Nx SED (CKD sedentary) and Nx RT (CKD trained). The RT consisted of ladder climbing at 70% of the animal's maximal carrying capacity for 10 weeks. Muscle strength, creatine kinase levels, renal fibrosis and mRNA interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were analyzed after the RT protocol. There was significant improvement in the muscle strength and creatine kinase levels in the Nx RT group. Moreover, renal fibrosis and inflammation were attenuated, with increased IL-4 and IL-10 expression and reduced IL-6 expression in the Nx RT group compared with that in the Nx SED group. No difference in muscle mass was observed among the groups. In conclusion, RT was effective in reducing fibrosis and inflammation, in addition to increasing muscle strength and creatine kinase levels, in rats with CKD, independent of muscle mass.