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White adipose tissue (WAT) regulates energy homeostasis by releasing adipokines and modulating cell maintenance. Nutrient excess affects adipocyte hypertrophy directly in WAT by increasing excessively the activity of autophagy systems, generating proinflammatory markers and increasing infiltration of macrophages, causing metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Evidences suggest that cathepsin B (CTSB), a papain-like cysteine peptidase protein, can modulate autophagy processes in adipocytes. This review will focus on the role of CTSB in autophagy under conditions of obesity.During obese conditions, white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation causes adipocyte hypertrophy and cathepsin B (CTSB) release, which leads to an excessive increase of autophagy in adipocytes and enhancing of inflammation and macrophage infiltration, therefore contributing to metabolic syndrome.Cathepsin B (CTSB) modulates autophagy process in adipocytes.CTSB expression increases during obesity conditions.CTSB expression modulates inflammatory markers under conditions of obesity.