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Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a bone metabolism disease that is caused by an imbalance between bone-resorbing osteoclast and bone-forming osteoblast actions. Herein, we describe the role of troxerutin (TRX), a trihydroxyethylated derivative of rutin, in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis and its effects on the regulation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts.In vivo, OVX female mice were intraperitoneally injected with either saline, 50 mg/kg TRX, or 150 mg/kg TRX for 6 weeks and then sacrificed for micro-computed tomography analyses, histological analyses, and biomechanical testing. In vitro, RAW264.7 cell-derived osteoclasts and MC3T3-E1 cell-derived osteoblasts were treated with different concentrations of TRX to examine the effect of TRX on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, as well as on osteogenesis and mineralization.In this study, we demonstrated that TRX prevented cortical and trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized mice by reducing osteoclastogenesis and promoting osteogenesis in vivo. In vitro, TRX inhibited the formation and activity of RAW264.7-derived osteoclasts and the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 and cathepsin K. Meanwhile, TRX improved the osteogenesis and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 by enhancing the expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2, Osterix, and collagen type 1 alpha 1.Our data demonstrated that TRX could prevent OVX-induced osteoporosis and be used in a novel treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis.