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In adult population, the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common urological malignancies. It is meaningful to research for the molecular markers which are involved in the occurrence and development of RCC. Therefore, we concentrate on illuminating the role of microRNA-154-5p in progression of RCC and explore its prognostic values.The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was applied to determine expression level of miR-154-5p in tissues. Afterwards, the transfected cell lines ACHN and 786-O were used for the CCK-8 assay, MTT assay, wound healing assay, transwell assay and flow cytometric assay to explore the role of miR-154-5p in regulating cellular function. In addition, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) renal cancer samples were used for detecting the relationship between expression level of miR-154-5p and clinical information. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses, and the Kaplan-Meier survival curves were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of miR-154-5p in RCC.The RT-qPCR indicated that miR-154-5p is up-regulated in RCC pathologic specimens and cell lines. Results of study also demonstrated that upregulation of miR-154-5p reduced cell apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation, viability, migration as well as invasion in RCC cells. The prognosis analyses indicated that the expression level of miR-154-5p is associated with the prognosis of renal cancer, and the overall survival of patients with low expression is longer.The present study revealed that the oncogene miR-154-5p regulates cellular function and acts as a molecular marker with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.