Oxidative stress – chronic kidney disease – cardiovascular disease: A vicious circle

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ABSTRACTChronic kidney disease patient's progression to end-stage renal disease as well as their high mortality are linked to cardiovascular disease. However, the high incidence rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these patients is not fully accounted for by traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity. Renal disease and CVD are associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and oxidative stress and in this review we will examine what is known regarding their similar roles in both CVD and chronic kidney disease, specifically focusing on the interconnections between oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. These interconnections are best visualized as a vicious circle wherein these entities coexist and communicate with each other, thereby exacerbating the processes underpinning these different entities with the end result of the high morbidity and mortality that characterize CKD patients. By exploring this vicious circle i.e. the mode and extent of the interrelationships as well as some of the underlying mechanisms involved, this review aims at outlining our current understanding as well as highlighting future avenues for research and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.Graphical abstract

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