Phytoestrogens and xenoestrogens act as agonists/antagonists in bone formation and differentiation. Strong bones are depending of the ability of osteoblasts to form new tissue and to mineralize the newly formed tissue. Dysfunctional or loss of mineralization leads to weak bone and increased fracture risk. In this study, we reported the effect of different types of phytoestrogens (daidzein, genistein and equol) on mineralization in hFOB 1.19 cells stimulated with bisphenol A (BPA).Main methods:
Cell mineralization capacity of phytoestrogens was investigated by evaluating calcium, phosphate content and alkaline phosphatase activity. Bone related markers, osteocalcin and osteonectin, responsible in maintaining mineralization were also measured.Key findings:
BPA is significantly interfering with bone mineralization in hFOB 1.19 cells. However, the enhanced mineralization efficacy of daidzein and genistein (particularly at a dose of 5 and 40 μg/mL, respectively) was evidenced by increasing calcium and phosphate content, higher ALP activity, compared to the untreated BPA group. The quantitative analyses were confirmed through morphological findings. Osteocalcin and osteonectin levels were increased in phytoestrogens-treated cells. These findings revealed the potential effect of phytoestrogens in reverting the demineralization process due to BPA exposure in hFOB 1.19 cells.Significance:
We found that osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were maintained following treatment with phytoestrogens under BPA exposure.