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Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) are involved in biological processes and the pathology of diseases and represent an important biomarker or therapeutic target for disease. Emerging evidence has suggested that lncRNAs modulate angiogenesis by regulating the angiogenic cell process—including vascular endothelial cells (VECs); stem cells, particularly bone marrow-derived stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)—and participating in ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Therapeutic angiogenesis as an alternative therapy to promote coronary collateral circulation has been demonstrated to significantly improve the prognosis and quality of life of patients with IHD in past decades. Therefore, lncRNAs are likely to represent a novel therapeutic target for IHD through regulation of the angiogenesis process. This review summarizes the classification and functions of lncRNAs and their roles in regulating angiogenesis and in IHD, in the context of an overview of therapeutic angiogenesis in clinical trials.