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To explore the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5) in the cell proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in asthma.An asthma rat model was established by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge. The expression of GAS5, miR-10a and BDNF mRNA and protein was determined with qRT-PCR and western blot, separately. The targeting relationship between GAS5 and miR-10a was examined with RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assay; the interaction between miR-10a and BDNF was evaluated by luciferase reporter assay. Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS) was used for ASMC proliferation detection. Knock-down of GAS5 was performed in asthmatic rats to determine the effects of GAS5 in vivo.Compared with control group, the inspiratory resistance and expiratory resistance were increased in asthma group; and the expression of GAS5, miR-10a and BDNF was higher, lower and higher, respectively. The expression of GAS5 and miR-10a was elevated and repressed, respectively, by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). GAS5 functioned as a bait of miR-10a. GAS5 regulates BDNF expression through miR-10a. PDGF-BB promotes the cell proliferation of ASMCs through miR-10a/BDNF. Knock-down of GAS5 significantly decreased airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic rats.The lncRNA GAS5/miR-10a/BDNF regulatory axis played an important role in promoting ASMCs proliferation, thus contributing to asthma.