Strength training reverses ovariectomy-induced bone loss and improve metabolic parameters in female Wistar rats

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Abstract

Menopause induces osteoporosis, sarcopenia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Ovariectomized (OVX) rat is an animal model, which mimetics postmenopausal conditions. The present study aimed to test the effects of strength training protocol on bone mineral density and metabolic parameters in OVX rats. Female Wistar rats were randomly separated in four groups: non-ovariectomized rats (Sham); ovariectomized rats (OVX); OVX treated with 17β-estradiol (HR); and OVX trained group (TR). At 70-days-old OVX groups were submitted to a bilateral ovariectomy. Hormonal replacement and strength training were performed three times per week, for 60 days. 17β-estradiol was administered by intramuscular injection (50 μg/kg of BW) and strength training protocol was composed by four series of 12 repetitions with 65–75% of 1RM. As expected, OVX impaired glucose homeostasis, promoted weight and adiposity gain, dyslipidemia, sarcopenia and osteoporosis, but hormonal replacement and strength training improved most of these parameters. Both HR and TR normalize glucose homeostasis; however, only TR restores blood insulin. OXV also reduced the maximum force in 42%, but TR improved this parameter in 110%, in addition TR prevents sarcopenia and fat mass gain. Interestingly, strength training was able to improve significantly BMD. Taken together, these data suggest that strength training can be effective in the treatment of damage caused by OVX, which in a translational context, becomes an effective non-pharmacological strategy to improve the health of postmenopausal women, reducing costs with secondary symptoms, mainly caused by weight gain, sarcopenia and osteoporosis.

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