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New-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) remains a common complication of liver transplantation (LT). We studied incidence and risk factors in 211 French patients who had undergone a primary LT between 6 and 24 months previously. This is a cross-sectional and retrospective multicenter study. Data were collected on consecutive patients at a single routine post-LT consultation. Demographic details, immunosuppressive regimens, familial and personal histories, hepatitis status, and cardiovascular risk were analyzed to compare those who developed NODM (American Diabetes Association/World Health Organization criteria) with the others. The overall incidence of NODM was 22.7%: 24% in tacrolimus (Tac)-treated patients (n = 175; 82.9%) and 16.7% in cyclosporine-treated patients (n = 36; 17.1%). A total of 81% of the cases were diagnosed within 3 months of LT (M3). Among hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected (HCV(+)) patients, NODM incidence was 41.7% whereas among those patients negative for this virus (HCV(−)), the incidence was only 18.9% (P = 0.008). In Tac-treated patients, the incidence of NODM in the HCV(+) patients was significantly higher than in the HCV(−) patients (46.7% and 19.3%, respectively, P = 0.0014). Only 1 of 6 (16.7%) of the HCV(+) patients developed NODM on cyclosporine. Other independent pretransplantation risk factors for NODM included impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and a maximum lifetime body-mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m2. In conclusion, emergence of NODM after LT is related to risk factors that can be detected prior to the graft, like maximum lifetime BMI, IFG, and HCV status. Tac induced a significantly higher incidence of NODM in the HCV(+) compared to the HCV(−) patients. The treatment should therefore be tailored to the patient's risk especially in case of HCV infection. Liver Transpl 13:136–144, 2007. © 2006 AASLD.