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Previous studies have shown that donor hypernatremia and possibly recipient hyponatremia negatively impact graft function after orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). The purpose of this retrospective investigation was to determine whether measured differences in serum sodium values between cadaveric donors and OLT recipients (ΔNa+) influence immediate postoperative allograft function and short-term patient outcomes. Two hundred and fifty patients that underwent OLT from January 2001 to December 2005 were included in this study. The ΔNa+ for each donor recipient pair was correlated with standard postoperative liver function tests as well as recipient length of intensive care unit stay (LOICUS), length of hospital stay (LOHS) and recipient survival. The relationship between donor hypernatremia (serum sodium ≥ 155 mEq/mL), recipient hyponatremia (serum sodium level ≤ 130 mEq/mL), and postoperative outcomes were analyzed as well. Adjustments were made for baseline potential confounders, including model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, preservation solution used (HTK vs. UW), recipient and donor demographics and cold ischemia time (CIT). ΔNa+ as well as donor hypernatremia and recipient hyponatremia were not found to be associated with immediate postoperative allograft function, intraoperative blood product usage, LOICUS, LOHS or short-term patient survival. However, both the preoperative MELD score and HTK preservation solution used were significantly associated with several patient outcomes. A higher MELD score was associated with both increased red blood cell (RBC) (P < 0.001) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) usage (P = 0.002), elevated postoperative total bilirubin levels (P < 0.001), increased LOHS (P = 0.04), and a higher 30-day post transplant mortality (P = 0.02). The use of HTK preservation solution was associated with higher mean postoperative aspartate aminotransferase levels (P = 0.02) and decreased mean RBC (P < 0.001) and FFP usage (P = 0.009) compared to UW preservation solution use. Liver Transpl 14:59–65, 2008. © 2007 AASLD.