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Infection with Listeria monocytogenes is rare, with a reported annual incidence of 4.4 cases per million individuals. It is caused by a gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium (Listeria monocytogenes) that can be found in soil, vegetation, water, sewage, and silage and in feces of humans and animals. It is a facultative intracellular pathogen with the ability to survive and multiply in phagocytic host cells, even in adverse environmental circumstances. Listeriosis has rarely been reported after orthotopic liver transplantation, and transplant physicians are often unfamiliar with the clinical presentation of this rare but virulent infection, which accounts for 20%-30% mortality in affected individuals. We present a case of invasive Listeria infection causing bacteremia and peritonitis in the early postoperative period after cadaveric liver transplantation in a previously asymptomatic patient. Liver Transpl 14:88–91, 2008. © 2007 AASLD.