Pregnancy outcomes after living donor liver transplantation: Results from a Japanese survey

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A national survey of pregnancy outcomes after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed in Japan. Thirty-eight pregnancies in 30 recipients resulted in 31 live births (25 recipients), 3 artificial abortions in the first trimester (3 recipients), 1 spontaneous abortion (1 recipient), and 3 fetal deaths (3 recipients). After the exclusion of the 3 artificial abortions, there were 35 pregnancies in 27 recipients: pregnancy-induced hypertension developed during 6 pregnancies (5 recipients), fetal growth restriction developed during 7 pregnancies (6 recipients), acute rejection developed during 2 pregnancies (2 recipients), and ileus developed during 1 pregnancy (1 recipient). Preterm delivery (<37 weeks) occurred for 10 pregnancies (10 recipients), and cesarean delivery was performed for 12 pregnancies (12 recipients). After delivery, acute rejection developed in 3 recipients. Twelve neonates were born with low birth weights (<2500 g), and 4 of these 12 neonates had extremely low birth weights (<1500 g). Two neonates had congenital malformations. The pregnancy outcomes after LDLT were similar to those reported for cadaveric liver transplantation (LT). The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in recipients who were 33 years old or older at the diagnosis of pregnancy was significantly higher than the incidence in recipients who were less than 33 years old at the diagnosis of pregnancy. The incidences of fetal growth restriction, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and extremely low birth weight were significantly higher in the early group (<3 years after transplantation) versus the late group (≥3 years after transplantation). In conclusion, it is necessary to pay careful attention to complications during pregnancy in recipients who become pregnant within 3 years of LT, particularly if the age at the diagnosis of pregnancy is ≥33 years. Liver Transpl 20:576-583, 2014. © 2014 AASLD.

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