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Biliary atresia (BA) is the main diagnosis leading to liver transplantation (LT) in children. When diagnosed early in life, a Kasai portoenterostomy (Kasai-PE) can prevent or postpone LT. Instances of previous operations can result in difficulties during the LT. We hypothesized that a previous Kasai-PE could affect LT outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of 347 BA patients submitted to LT between 1995 and 2013 at Hospital Sírio-Libanês and A. C. Camargo Cancer Center was conducted. Patients were divided into those with a previous Kasai portoenterostomy early failure (K-EF), Kasai portoenterostomy late failure (K-LF), and those with no Kasai portoenterostomy (No-K). Primary outcomes were patient and graft survival. A total of 94 (27.1%) patients had a K-EF, 115 (33.1%) had a K-LF, and 138 (39.8%) had No-K before LT. Children in the K-LF group were older and had lower Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease (PELD) scores. Patients in both K-EF and K-LF groups had more post-LT biliary complications. After Cox-multivariate analysis adjusting for confounding factors to determine the influence of Kasai-PE on patient and graft survival, the K-LF group had an 84% less probability of dying and a 55% less chance to undergo retransplantation. The K-LF group had a protective effect on posttransplant patient and graft survival. When properly performed, the Kasai procedure can postpone LT and positively affect outcomes. Having a K-EF and having not performed a Kasai-PE had the same effect in patient and graft survival; however, a previous Kasai-PE can increase post-LT complications as biliary complications and bowel perforations. Liver Transpl 21:922-927, 2015. © 2015 AASLD.