On Baxter 𝒬-Operators and their Arithmetic Implications

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We consider Baxter 𝒬-operators for various versions of quantum affine Toda chain. The interpretation of eigenvalues of the finite Toda chain Baxter operators as local Archimedean L-functions proposed recently is generalized to the case of affine Lie algebras. We also introduce a simple generalization of Baxter operators and local L-functions compatible with this identification. This gives a connection of the Toda chain Baxter 𝒬-operators with an Archimedean version of the Polya–Hilbert operator proposed by Berry-Keating. We also elucidate the Dorey–Tateo spectral interpretation of eigenvalues of 𝒬-operators. Using explicit expressions for eigenfunctions of affine/relativistic Toda chain we obtain an Archimedean analog of Casselman–Shalika–Shintani formula for Whittaker function in terms of characters.

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