Non-Invasive Detection of Antibiotics and Physiological Substances in the Aqueous Humor by Raman Spectroscopy

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Background and Objectives:

Laser Raman spectroscopy is an inelastic light scattering technique able to characterize molecules in aqueous environments. The purpose of this work is to develop a non-contact and noninvasive spectroscopic method to identify and eventually quantify the presence of medicines (e.g., antibiotics) and physiological substances (e.g., glucose) in the aqueous humor of the eye.

Study Design/Materials and Methods:

A new laser light delivery probe has been developed and adapted to a Raman spectroscopic system with the ability of favorable collection of the Raman light at 90° scattering geometry while scanning the anterior chamber of the eye. Different amounts of ceftazidime, amphotericin B, and glucose had been injected in the aqueous humor of porcine eyes, maximum 24 hours after death and extraction, in-vitro. Raman measurements were excited with a visible (514.5 nm) laser beam at a power of 25 mW and an exposure/acquisition time of 1 second.


The specific collection optics and Raman analysis components used in the present work have resolved the Raman signatures of probed molecules and low concentrations of ceftazidime (0.9 mg/mL), amphotericin B (9 μg/mL), and glucose (2 mg/ml) separately injected in the anterior chamber of porcine eyes were detected in vitro.


This special illumination design gives the opportunity of avoiding the direct exposure to the laser light of basic cordial tissues of the eye, like lens and retina, although an optimum collection of scattered light is accomplished. Concentrations close to the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) have been detected for ceftazidime and amphotericin b; the detection of glucose has been realized at concentrations close to the early pathological levels of patients with diabetes.

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