Functional morphology and phylogeny of the rock-boring bivalvesLeiosolenusandLithophaga(Bivalvia: Mytilidae): a third functional clade

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Abstract

The functional morphology of the shell of rock-boring mytilids (especially Leiosolenus and Lithophaga) is analyzed and compared with that of several epifaunal and semi-infaunal mytilids. Semi-infaunal species are generally intermediate between epifaunal and rock-boring ones both in terms of shell form and the magnitude of forces pulling the shells against the substratum. A molecular phylogenetic analyses using 18s rDNA sequence data strongly suggests that Leiosolenus and Lithophaga are monophyletic genera but that the so-called Lithophaginae (or Leiosolenus plus Lithophaga) is a paraphyletic group. The common cylindrical shell form of rock-boring species, which is here called “lithophagiform” as a third functional mytilid clade, may be due to convergence, as is the case with ‘mytiliform' and ‘modioliform'.

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