Genetic population structures along the Japanese coast, analyzed by sequence data from the mitochondrial DNA COI region, were determined for four intertidal brachyuran species in the superfamily Thoracotremata (Ocypode ceratophthalma, Gaetice depressus, Chiromantes dehaani and Deiratonotus japonicus), which were characterized by different habitat requirements. O. ceratophthalma (seashore; supratidal sand) and C. dehaani (estuarine; supratidal marsh) showed no significant genetic differentiation among Japanese populations. The Japanese populations of O. ceratophthalma, however, were found to genetically differentiated from the Philippine population. G. depressus (seashore; intertidal cobbles) exhibited significant genetic differentiation between the Amami-Ohshima population and other local populations. D. japonicus (estuarine; intertidal cobbles) showed significant genetic differentiation among many local populations separated by about 30–1,200 km. The different patterns of genetic population structure recorded for the four species, thus, do not simply correspond to habitat type.