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We treated two patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme using Nd:YAG laser irradiation in the framework of a salvage therapy. The underlying concept is to achieve cytoreduction by partial coagulation of the tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up examinations revealed a volume reduction of the laser-irradiated areas, while the untreated parts of the tumor exhibited a progression. The survival time after the diagnosis of the recurrence was 16 and 20 months, respectively, which is substantially (about four times) longer than the natural history of the disease would suggest. In conclusion, cytoreduction by laser irradiation may be a promising option for patients suffering from recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Future work should optimize the therapeutic regimen and evaluate this treatment approach in controlled clinical trials. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.