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To use dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI at 3 Tesla (T) for early evaluation of treatment effects in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and assess the reliability of DW-MRI.DW- and DCE-MRI acquisitions of 15 breast cancer patients were performed before and after one cycle of NAC. MRI tumor diameter and volume, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and kinetic parameters (Ktrans, ve) were derived. The reliability of ADC before NAC was assessed. Changes in MRI parameters after NAC were analyzed, and logistic regression analysis was used to find the best predictors for pathologic response.The reliability for ADC values was high, with intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.84 (P = 0.001). After one cycle of NAC, MRI tumor diameter (8%, P = 0.005) and tumor volume (30%, P = 0.008) was reduced for all patients, while ADC mean values increased (0.12 mm2/s, P = 0.008). The best predictor for treatment response was a change in MRI tumor diameter with mean error rate of 0.167 (13% for responders, 5% for nonresponders, P = 0.291).Changes in MRI derived tumor diameter and ADC after only one cycle of NAC could provide a valuable tool for early evaluation of treatment effects in breast cancer patients. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2011;. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.