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Hypertension is a common systemic disorder affecting the cardiovascular system and kidneys with important morbidity and mortality. However, hypertension is often thought of by radiologists as an “invisible” disease. The aim of this article is to first review hypertension first in terms of its diagnosis, epidemiology and clinical importance. Second, those causes of secondary hypertension that may be diagnosed with MRI techniques are described along with the effects of hypertension on the cardiovascular system and kidneys that are demonstrable with MRI with particular emphasis on renovascular disease. Lastly the use of integrated MRI protocols to evaluate the hypertensive patient and areas for future research are considered. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2011;. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.