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To establish the correspondence between the two histologically observable and diffusion tensor MRI (DTMRI) measurements of myolaminae orientation for the first time and show that single myolaminar orientations observed in local histology may result from histological artifact.DTMRI was performed on six sheep left ventricles (LV), then corresponding direct histological transmural measurements were made within the anterobasal and lateral-equatorial LV. Secondary and tertiary eigenvectors of the diffusion tensor were compared with each of the two locally observable sheet orientations from histology. Diffusion tensor invariants were calculated to compare differences in microstructural diffusive properties between histological locations with one observable sheet population and two observable sheet populations.Mean difference ± 1SD between DTMRI and histology measured sheet angles was 8° ± 27°. Diffusion tensor invariants showed no significant differences between histological locations with one observable sheet population and locations with two observable sheet populations.DTMRI measurements of myolaminae orientations derived from the secondary and tertiary eigenvectors correspond to each of the two local myolaminae orientations observed in histology. Two local sheet populations may exist throughout LV myocardium, and one local sheet population observed in histology may be a result of preparation artifact. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2011. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.