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A segmented inversion-recovery module combined with the 2D ultrashort echo time radial technique is proposed that allows accurate pixel level T1 mapping of mouse lung in vivo.Numerical simulations were performed to estimate T1 measurement accuracy and precision versus flip angle and signal-to-noise ratio. Phantom measurements were used for protocol validation, where the segmented inversion-recovery ultrashort echo-time sequence was compared with the reference technique (inversion-recovery rapid acquisition with refocused echoes). The in vivo experiments were carried out on free-breathing C57 mice (n = 10), breathing first air and then oxygen.The simulations demonstrated the high potential of the technique for accurate and precise T1 assessment. Phantom experiments showed good agreement for T1 values measured with segmented inversion-recovery ultrashort echo-time and the reference technique. The in vivo experiment demonstrated the utility of the technique in oxygen-enhanced assessment, where small T1 changes were detected with high precision.Segmented inversion-recovery ultrashort echo-time provides accurate, high resolution T1 mapping of the lung parenchyma. Magn Reson Med 71:2180–2185, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.