Assessing intrarenal nonperfusion and vascular leakage in acute kidney injury with multinuclear 1H/19F MRI and perfluorocarbon nanoparticles

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Purpose:We sought to develop a unique sensor-reporter approach for functional kidney imaging that employs circulating perfluorocarbon nanoparticles and multinuclear 1H/19F MRI.Methods:19 F spin density weighted and T1 weighted images were used to generate quantitative functional mappings of both healthy and ischemia-reperfusion (acute kidney injury) injured mouse kidneys. 1H blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI was also employed as a supplementary approach to facilitate the comprehensive analysis of renal circulation and its pathological changes in acute kidney injury.Results:Heterogeneous blood volume distributions and intrarenal oxygenation gradients were confirmed in healthy kidneys by 19F MRI. In a mouse model of acute kidney injury, 19F MRI, in conjunction with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent MRI, sensitively delineated renal vascular damage and recovery. In the cortico-medullary junction region, we observed 25% lower 19F signal (P < 0.05) and 70% longer 1H T2* (P < 0.01) in injured kidneys compared with contralateral kidneys at 24 h after initial ischemia-reperfusion injury. We also detected 71% higher 19F signal (P < 0.01) and 40% lower 1H T2* (P < 0.05) in the renal medulla region of injured kidneys compared with contralateral uninjured kidneys.Conclusion:Integrated 1H/19F MRI using perfluorocarbon nanoparticles provides a multiparametric readout of regional perfusion defects in acutely injured kidneys. Magn Reson Med 71:2186–2196, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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