Rapid Acquisition of Helium-3 and Proton Three-Dimensional Image Sets of the Human Lung in a Single Breath-Hold Using Compressed Sensing

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Purpose:To develop and validate a method for acquiring helium-3 (3He) and proton (1H) three-dimensional (3D) image sets of the human lung with isotropic spatial resolution within a 10-s breath-hold by using compressed sensing (CS) acceleration, and to assess the fidelity of undersampled images compared with fully sampled images.Methods:The undersampling scheme for CS acceleration was optimized and tested using 3He ventilation data. Rapid 3D acquisition of both 3He and 1H data during one breath-hold was then implemented, based on a balanced steady-state free-precession pulse sequence, by random undersampling of k-space with reconstruction by means of minimizing the L1 norm and total variance. CS-reconstruction fidelity was evaluated quantitatively by comparing fully sampled and retrospectively undersampled image sets.Results:Helium-3 and 1H 3D image sets of the lung with isotropic 3.9-mm resolution were acquired during a single breath-hold in 12 s and 8 s using acceleration factors of 2 and 3, respectively. Comparison of fully sampled and retrospectively undersampled 3He and 1H images yielded mean absolute errors <10% and structural similarity indices >0.9.Conclusion:By randomly undersampling k-space and using CS reconstruction, high-quality 3He and 1H 3D image sets with isotropic 3.9-mm resolution can be acquired within an 8-s breath-hold. Magn Reson Med 74:1110–1115, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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