Temperature-Dependent MR Signals in Cortical Bone: Potential for Monitoring Temperature Changes during High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment in Bone

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Purpose:Because existing magnetic resonance thermometry techniques do not provide temperature information within bone, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposures in bone are monitored using temperature changes in adjacent soft tissues. In this study, the potential to monitor temperature changes in cortical bone using a short TE gradient echo sequence is evaluated.Methods:The feasibility of this proposed method was initially evaluated by measuring the temperature dependence of the gradient echo signal during cooling of cortical bone samples implanted with fiber-optic temperature sensors. A subsequent experiment involved heating a cortical bone sample using a clinical MR-HIFU system.Results:A consistent relationship between temperature change and the change in magnitude signal was observed within and between cortical bone samples. For the two-dimensional gradient echo sequence implemented in this study, a least-squares linear fit determined the percentage change in signal to be (0.90 ± 0.01)%/°C. This relationship was used to estimate temperature changes observed in the HIFU experiment and these temperatures agreed well with those measured from an implanted fiber-optic sensor.Conclusion:This method appears capable of displaying changes related to temperature in cortical bone and could improve the safety of MR-HIFU treatments. Further investigations into the sensitivity of the technique in vivo are warranted. Magn Reson Med 74:1095–1102, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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