We investigated chromosomal copy number changes in ethylnitrosourea-induced and serially transplanted gliomas of the rat by flow cytometry and Comparative Genomic in situ Hybridization (CGH). CGH analysis of a primary and four transplanted tumors revealed several genomic aberrations, including whole chromosome and subchromosomal gains and losses. Gains involved rat Chromosomes (RNO) 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, and Y, whereas losses affected RNO5, 13, 20, and Y. The primary tumor exhibited gain of RNO2q31qter and gain of RNO4. While gain of RNO2 was seen in nearly all investigated passages, gain of RNO4 was apparent in the primary tumor and in passage 2 and 5 tumors. Chromosomal alterations detected as single events were restricted to the transplanted tumors and included gain of RNO3q11, 3q41qter, 5q36, 7q34qter, 9q37, 1 1q, and Y, and loss of RNO5, 13, and 20q. Flow cytometry disclosed different aneuploid cell clones in the tumors investigated. The results are discussed in analogy to findings in human glial tumors.