The ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) is an inhibitor of the insulin receptor. Variants of ENPP1 are associated with infantile arterial calcification, obesity, and insulin resistance. To study the functional relevance of this protein in vivo, we cloned rabbit ENPP1 and studied its regulation in experimentally induced diabetes mellitus. We amplified and sequenced the complete coding sequence of rabbit ENPP1 gene out of a liver cDNA library using redundant primers deduced from other species. Next, we performed quantitative PCR of ENPP1 to study the tissue distribution of ENPP1 expression and its regulation in an alloxan-dependent diabetes model. The putative rabbit ENPP1 protein contains 873 amino acids and is highly conserved when compared with human ENPP1 (90% amino acid identity). Particularly high levels of ENPP1 mRNA expression were found in adipose tissue. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed a significant upregulation of ENPP1 transcription in liver (p = 0.025) and brain (p = 0.034) of diabetic rabbits compared with controls. Hepatic ENPP1 expression is induced in diabetic rabbits when compared with controls. This approximately twofold upregulation of ENPP1 mRNA in rabbit liver parallels previous findings in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We provide further molecular information about ENPP1 as a potential pharmacologic target and characterize its regulation in an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus animal model.