Cercartetus nanus (Desmarest, 1817) is a burramyid commonly called the eastern pygmy-possum. It is 1 of 4 species in the genus Cercartetus, which together with Burramys parvus form the marsupial family Burramyidae. This species is endemic to southeastern Australia and occupies a range of vegetation types, but Banksia woodland is probably preferred habitat. This species is notable for its longevity, ability to hibernate, and its likely role as an important pollinator of a range of large-flowered plants. This species is of conservation concern in several Australian states, where it is threatened by habitat loss, inappropriate fire regimes, and introduced predators. DOI: 10.1644/815.1.