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RHEINSTEIN, DONALD J., CHAUNCEY A. MOREHOUSE, AND BENJAMIN W. NIEBEL. Effects on traction of outsole composition and hardnesses of basketball shoes and three types of playing surfaces. Med. Sci. Sports. Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 282-288, 1978.—The purposes of this investigation were to determine the effects of outsole composition and hardness, playing surfaces and player weight on the dynamic torque, traction forces and static drag developed at the shoe-surface interface. Basketball shoes of polyurethane and elastomer outsoles, each of three different hardnesses, were tested on clean and dusty hardwood floor samples, and on a sample of an artificial gymnasium flooring. The tests were conducted using a laboratory apparatus which included a player leg assembly with simulation of two player weights. Dynamic torque, traction forces from side and rear impacts and static drag were measured at the shoe surface interface. The results indicated that in basketball the magnitude of the resistance forces and torques are influenced by the outsole material and outsole hardness of the shoes, the playing surface and player weights.